Current Information On Terror Groups

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Motivation behind International Terror Organizations
Terrorism is any use of violence that seeks to further a particular ideology such as a political or religious one. These ideologies are the primary motivation for terrorist attacks against the western nations. For instance, in the September 11th attacks against the US, Osama Bin Laden stated that the motives of their attacks included the US support for attacks against Muslims in Somalia, Chechnya, Kashmir, and Lebanon. There was also the issue of US support for Israel and occupation in Saudi Arabia. Radicalization also factors in where individuals have adopted extreme ideologies. These motivations have not changed over the decades and since 9/11, with terrorism still based on religious and political ideologies (Borgeson & Valeri 2009). They do this through the interpretation of the Quran and Hadith in accordance with their goals. They are however not realistic; instead, they are just the goals of a few individuals who have managed to radicalize followers in the name of religion. For instance, a goal to disrupt peace in the US and cause an economic downfall is unachievable. Also demanding that all Muslim nations pay allegiance to the Islamic State is far-fetched and unreasonable. Organizations that are likely to engage in terrorist activities against the US include Al Qaida, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and the Taliban.
ISIL
ISIL has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations as well as by the US and controls areas in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon. The origins of this group are in 1999, and from then it pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda. During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, ISIL participated in the Iraqi insurgency which was in opposition to the American occupation.  It holds vast areas in western Iraq and Eastern Syria where it enforces its harsh interpretation of Sharia law. To date, it is believed to be operational in 18 states including Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, the organization continues to lose territories to the countries it occupies. The group has come to refer to itself as a caliphate which is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward known as a caliph or a spiritual successor to Prophet Mohammad, something that many objects to. ISIL follows an extremist interpretation of Islam that promotes religious violence. It adheres to jihadist principles and is seen to have been influenced by the ideologies of Al-Qaeda (Cronin, 2006).
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Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda or Al-Qaida has been designated as a terrorist group by the United States and by many other countries. It has executed many terrorist acts that have left a huge trail of blood behind. Such include the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and the September 11th attacks. Its origins are traced to the Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979-1989). The ideologies of this group are based on the need to establish true Islamic states at the rise of Islamic movement with the claims that Muslims had been corrupted. They advocated for Sharia law. This has been the roots of their activities (Cronin, 2006).
Current Level of Terrorism Threat on the US
The National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been designed to communicate information about terrorism to the public with the latest update on May 15, 2017, to November 15, 2017. Having an active Intelligence community has decreased security threat, but a more pressing issue has come up. Seeing that the DHS beefed up airport security, the threat of terrorism now comes from within(McMahan, Justice, Chapman, Street, & Brevard, 2017). The terrorist organizations have shown the ability to use online means to radicalize American citizens who then perform terrorist actions. A good example is the June 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting on, whereby there were 49 fatalities and 58 others wounded by a terrorist, who was an American. He pledged allegiance to the leader of ISIL, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. He also claimed that the shooting was elicited by the killing of Abu Waheeb. In the NTAS Bulletin, the government warns that the serious terrorist threat since the 9/11 is the use of internet technology by the foreign terrorist organizations to inspire individuals already in the US into committing terrorist acts. It also lists the continued success in combating overseas terrorist groups as a victory that could encourage more home-grown terrorism. From this, it is clear that the threat of terrorism is only increasing but from within.
Solution to Terrorism
The US has a policy of no negotiations with terrorists that is aimed to discourage terrorist acts by ensuring that terror groups understand that there shall be no reward for terrorism. However, throughout history, the dialogue has been an integral part of conflict resolution. Thus the idea of a possibility of a dialogue between the US and terrorist groups is an interesting issue in as far as the results are concerned. One wonders whether it would yield an outcome. The terrorist groups, however, have depicted a picture of an extremist group that is not ready to compromise. If there were a dialogue between the two, of course, the first demand of the terror group would be to ask the US to order its entire military out of countries such as Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan and the much more. The US would then demand that the groups cease to war with the various governments they are occupying, meaning the breaking up of such groups, a demand that they would not give in to. If such groups were left to expand and enforce their oppressive Sharia law, many would be injured, and their rights violated. The fact that these terrorist organizations have intentions of revenge against the US and seek the downfall of the US does not help matters. Therefore dialogue is not a viable option. The solution to terrorism lies in a combination of both a competent Intelligent Community (IC) and a strong military. The IC has agencies in the departments of Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, State, Justice, and treasury that contribute to the national security of the US. They gather intelligence on potential terrorist foreign threats and act fast to stop such. The DHS maintains national security by ensuring that airports and all public transportations are safe (McMahan et al. 2017). The lack of a successful strike against the Continental United States (CONUS) means that the IC together with DHS has been very effective in maintaining national security. Nowadays it is tough for a terrorist to penetrate into the country to carry out a terror attack. It, however, does not necessarily reflect a success in eliminating terrorism. However, overseas operations have been quite successful in weakening terrorist organizations such as the al-Qaeda and ISIL. The only way they can carry out such attacks now is by radicalizing individuals already in the US to carry out such attacks (Borgeson et al. 2009).
References
Borgeson, K., & Valeri, R. (Eds.). (2009). Terrorism in America. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
No, D., McMahan, B. T., Justice, J. C., Chapman, L., Street, M., & Brevard, N. C. (2017). Department of Homeland Security.
Cronin, A. K. (2006). How al-Qaida ends: The decline and demise of terrorist groups. International Security, 31(1), 7-48.
 
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risk factors for juveniles

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 Review the following website. Determine the risk factors that you think are most important for assessing potential risk. What do you think are the most important risk factors where you live? Do you think ethnicity plays a part in the risk factors for juveniles depending on where they are from?
In response to your peers, consider the following: How did your risk factors differ? What may be some explanation for differences? 

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